LUCIUS m Ancient Roman, Biblical, English Roman praenomen, or given name, which was derived from Latin lux "light".

This is a bit more complex than our modern surnames, because your Roman family name must have two parts: the nomen and the cognomen.

Even after the development of the nomen and cognomen, filiation remained a useful means of distinguishing between members of a large family. [4], For most of the Republic, the usual manner of distinguishing individuals was through the binomial form of praenomen and nomen.

[18], Most Roman women were known by their nomina, with such distinction as described above for older and younger siblings. Over the course of the third century, praenomina become increasingly scarce in written records, and from the fourth century onward their appearance becomes exceptional.

The name is mentioned briefly in the New … [2], By the sixth century, traditional Roman cognomina were frequently prefixed by a series of names with Christian religious significance. Thus far, his name follows the Republican model, becoming that of his adoptive father, followed by his original nomen in the form of an agnomen.

By the third century, this had become the norm amongst freeborn Roman citizens.

As with the filiation, it was common to abbreviate the name of the tribe. The nomen was especially handy in distinguishing people with the same praenomen.

[2], Under the weight of these practices and others, the utility of the praenomen to distinguish between men continued to decline, until only the force of tradition prevented its utter abandonment. Oscan and Umbrian forms tend to be found in inscriptions; in Roman literature these names are often Latinized. This was the most democratic of Rome's three main legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic, in that all citizens could participate on an equal basis, without regard to wealth or social status. One of the first persons recorded with this surname is a general named Vivio Pacieco, General Pacieco was sent by Julius Caesar to fight in the Iberian peninsula... [more] PITINO Ancient Roman (Latinized, ?) [15][16], Geography was not the sole determining factor in one's tribus; at times efforts were made to assign freedmen to the four urban tribes, thus concentrating their votes and limiting their influence on the comitia tributa.

[23] Between the late Republic and the second century AD, the praenomen gradually became less used and eventually disappeared altogether. Surviving inscriptions from the fifth century rarely provide a citizen's full nomenclature. Yet another common practice beginning in the first century AD was to give multiple sons the same praenomen, and distinguish them using different cognomina; by the second century this was becoming the rule, rather than the exception. Where once only the most noble patrician houses used multiple surnames, Romans of all backgrounds and social standing might bear several cognomina. However, adoption did not result in the complete abandonment of the adopted son's birth name. They did not disappear entirely, nor were Roman women bereft of personal names; but for most of Roman history women were known chiefly by their nomina or cognomina.[1]. From the earliest period it was common to both the Indo-European speaking Italic peoples and the Etruscans.

As usual, there were exceptions to this policy as well; for instance, among the, A few exceptions are noted by the ancient historians; for example, supposedly no member of the. Throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, other ancient civilizations distinguished individuals through the use of single personal names, usually dithematicin nature. Consisting of two distinct elements, or "themes", these names allowed for hundreds or even thousands of possible combinations. Other members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty used praenomina such as Drusus and Germanicus. [1], The origin of this binomial system is lost in prehistory, but it appears to have been established in Latium and Etruria by at least 650 BC. If there were more daughters, the eldest might be called Servilia Prima or Servilia Maxima;[xii] younger daughters as Servilia Secunda, Tertia, Quarta, etc.

[1], The binomial name consisting of praenomen and nomen eventually spread throughout Italy.

Frequently this required a joining element, such as -e-, -id-, -il-, or -on-.

[9] Because some gentes made regular use of only three or four praenomina, new names might appear whenever a family had more than three or four sons.

to A.D. 700",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

Citizens did not normally change tribes when they moved from one region to another; but the censors had the power to punish a citizen by expelling him from one of the rural tribes and assigning him to one of the urban tribes. Two Etruscan kings of early Rome had this name as well as several prominent later Romans, including Lucius Annaeus Seneca (known simply as Seneca), a statesman, philosopher, orator and tragedian. There are many names of Roman origin in use in Europe today.

Some Romans had more than one cognomen, and in aristocratic families it was not unheard of for individuals to have as many as three, of which some might be hereditary and some personal. Adoption was a common and formal process in Roman culture. [1] Marcus Terentius Varro wrote that the earliest Italians used simple names. Bubulcus, for example, meaning cattle-driver. A slave might have more than one owner, in which case the names could be given serially. During the time of the early Roman Republic there may have been feminine praenomina, but by the time of the later Republic and Empire women were simply known by the feminine form of their father's nomen.

List of Ancient Roman names and meanings This was especially true for citizens of Greek origin. for abnepos or abneptis, and a great-great-great-grandchild adnepos or adneptis.

Consisting of two distinct elements, or "themes", these names allowed for hundreds or even thousands of possible combinations.

With the fall of the western empire in the fifth century, the last traces of the distinctive Italic nomenclature system began to disappear, and women too reverted to single names.

Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea, consisting of a combination of personal and family names. An example of the filiation of slaves and freedmen would be: Alexander Corneli L. s., "Alexander, slave of Lucius Cornelius", who upon his emancipation would probably become L. Cornelius L. l. Alexander, "Lucius Cornelius Alexander, freedman of Lucius"; it was customary for a freedman to take the praenomen of his former owner, if he did not already have one, and to use his original personal name as a cognomen. It had long been the expectation that when a non-Roman acquired citizenship he, as part of his enfranchisement, took on a Roman name. Toward the end of the Roman Republic, this was followed by the name of a citizen's voting tribe. Perhaps no names were more variable than those of the emperors.

[iv] Normally all of the children in a family would have different praenomina. This called for an honorific surname in recognition of what they had achieved, and was given to them by others. In ancient Roman times, this was the name of your clan.

The practice from which these patronymics arose also gave rise to the filiation, which in later times, once the nomen had become fixed, nearly always followed the nomen.

The names of married women were sometimes followed by the husband's name and uxor for "wife". Although a few individuals mentioned in relation to the period of and before Rome's legendary foundation in the eighth century BC are known by only a single name, it is equally difficult to discern which of these represent actual historical figures, and if so, whether their names were accurately remembered by the historians who recorded these myths centuries later. Read more about names in ancient Rome. New cognomina were coined and came into fashion throughout Roman history.

The nomen gentile is what we now call the “last name”. During the Republic, a person's names were usually static and predictable, unless he were adopted into a new family or obtained a new surname.

1) Faustus (lucky) 2) Flavius (golden) 3) Publicus (public) 4) Servius (to preserve) 5) Manius (morning) The nomen gentile is what we now call the “last name”. I’ve given some examples of Roman first names, with the meanings in parentheses.

By 100 BC a cognomen (family name) was also required on official documents, and when applying for citizenship. The patrician gentes in particular tended to limit the number of praenomina that they used far more than the plebeians, which was a way of reinforcing the exclusiveness of their social status.

In ancient Roman times, this was the name of your clan.

[26] In the east, however, the new citizens formulated their names by placing "Aurelius" before versions of their non-Roman given name and a patronymic.

The distinguishing feature of Roman nomenclature was the use of both personal names and regular surnames. Doubtless some cognomina were used ironically, while others continued in use largely because, whatever their origin, they were useful for distinguishing among individuals and between branches of large families. Originally Roman women shared the binomial nomenclature of men; but over time the praenomen became less useful as a distinguishing element, and women's praenomina were gradually discarded, or replaced by informal names. [26] Ultimately, the ubiquity of "Aurelius" meant that it could not function as a true distinguishing nomen, and became primarily just a badge of citizenship added to any name. [11][18], Although women's praenomina were infrequently used in the later Republic, they continued to be used, when needed, into imperial times.

Another example might be Salvia Pompeia Cn.

However, it was also common to identify sisters using a variety of names, some of which could be used as either praenomina or cognomina.

The nomen was especially handy in distinguishing people with the same praenomen. Roman men were usually known by their praenomina to members of their family and household, clientes and close friends; but outside of this circle, they might be called by their nomen, cognomen, or any combination of praenomen, nomen, and cognomen that was sufficient to distinguish them from other men with similar names. In the same way, Sextius, Publilius, and Lucilius arose from the praenomina Sextus, Publius, and Lucius. Although conventionally referred to as the tria nomina, the combination of praenomen, nomen, and cognomen that have come to be regarded as the basic elements of the Roman name in fact represent a continuous process of development, from at least the seventh century BC to the end of the seventh century AD. The accuracy of these name definitions cannot be guaranteed.

Another factor was probably that the praenomen was not usually necessary to distinguish between women within the family. Evidently there were exceptions to this as well. As Roman institutions vanished, and the distinction between nomen and cognomen ceased to have any practical importance, the complex system of cognomina that developed under the later empire faded away. [20], Under the "High Empire", the new aristocracy began adopting two or more nomina – a practice which has been termed 'binary nomenclature'.

Caesar came to be used as a cognomen designating an heir apparent; and for the first two centuries of the empire, most emperors were adopted by their predecessors. [1], Like the nomen, cognomina could arise from any number of factors: personal characteristics, habits, occupations, places of origin, heroic exploits, and so forth.